چكيده لاتين/ محمود كريمي

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Abstracts*

Interpretation of the Holy Quran (1): Sura al-Baqara / 2, Verses 1-7

Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbāh Yāzdī**/ Ed. Sayyid Ahmad Faqihī***

The present article involves the interpretation of verses 1 - 7 of Sura al -Baqara, the 2nd chapter of the Quran. These verses state the qualities of the virtuous and the unbelievers when exposed to the guidance of the Quran. The method of interpretation of the verses rests on the semantic study of the words, and sentences contemplating upon the words and the context surrounding them, benefiting from verbal and intellectual clues with Concentration on the language of the Quran, and general tenor of the verses, expressions, and teachings of the Quran. The main points of the article are as follows:

Verse1: There are various views on the meaning of mysterious letters and the possibility of understanding them - none, however preferable to others. Verse2: Dhālika is a demonstrative referring to something far away used to show the grandeur of the Quran. Al-Kitāb: a written material by which the holy Quran is meant. Lā rayba fīh: the Holy Quran per se has no imperfection causing people to doubt. Hudan lil Muttaqīn: by "Taqwā" here the natural or inherent virtue is meant, since it is the condition of being influenced and guided by the Quran. Other qualities such as believing in the unseen, performing the prayers, and expending for the cause of God emanate from inherent virtue and actualize in favorable circumstances. This very point is the secret behind turning from an adjective, i.e. the virtuous, to adjective clauses in the following verses.

Verse3: By "Ghayb" - the unseen Allah is meant, and belief in Him is a natural or inherent thing. The verb "Razaqnā" - We have provided them - refers to satisfaction of needs and expending for the cause of God is the main cause of salvation, man's freedom from material belongings and parsimony. Verse4: Having faith in the Hereafter, provides good motives toward performing righteous deeds and avoiding wicked ones. Verse5: Guidance here is an actual type of guidance, i.e. leading someone to his destination or goal, not simply guiding. Verse6: By "Alladhīna kafarū" - as for the unbelievers - the heads of Quraysh are meant. Verse7: "Khatamallāhu alā Qulūbihim" - Allah has set a seal on their hearts - shows that unbelievers have blocked the ways of guidance, i.e. the faculty of intellectual understanding (Aql, i.e. heart), hearing the call of the prophets, and taking lessons (Basar) to themselves. Hearing (Sam<), Seeing (Basar), and intellectual understanding (Qalb) are internal faculties of man. The attribution of setting a seal on the hearts of unbelievers does not involve determinism, Since the themselves - out of their free will have eliminated the conditions of being affected by God's guidance. Nevertheless, the actual and substantial influence in the whole creation belongs to God.

Keywords: Interpretation of Sura al-Baqara, mysterious letters, inherent virtue, setting a seal on one's heart, natural and actual guidance, determinism and freewill.


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Connotation and its Role in Understanding and Interpreting the Text (With Special Focus on the Interpretation of the Quran)

Ghulām Alī Azīzīkiā*

Revealed texts including the Quran - like other speeches and texts - have their own implications. It is necessary to take connotations into consideration when seeking to understand and interpret these texts. Semantic implications of Quranic verses are among the intents of God and may be drawn upon as proofs and demonstrations. Some scholars regard the semantic implications of Quranic verses, whether patent or latent, authentic. In contrast, some others emphasize only patent ones.

The present article deals with different types of Significations, kinds of connotation, and the role of the latter in the interpretation of the Quran emphasizing on the following points:

Although connotation follows verbal signification, it is an intellectual and Semantic one. This signification has nothing to do with the internal meaning of the verses (Bātin), and every expert on the Quran can reach it after deliberation on the intellectual and conventional semantic implications of the verses. Connotation in its narrow patent sense is considered as the speaker's intent although it is not contingent on his will, and latent connotations are naturally neglected. However, since God and the infallible ones (Masumun) are aware of all semantic implications of their words, it should be admitted that they have paid due attention to the patent and latent implications of their words.

The only condition for connotations is comprehensibility of the semantic implications of the words by the addressee. There is no other condition. Although implications does not recognize any limitations, common sense attaches to closer implications and forsakes the farther. Connotations, whether considered the implied meanings or indirect verbal meanings of the words, would not change the original nature of this signification. In any event, connotations are not regarded as what is understood from the external sense of the words.

Keywords: Interpretation of the text, rules of interpretation, signification, connotation

Quranic Sciences: Nature, Whys and Wherefores, and Quality

Alī Awsat Bāqirī**

The Present article deals with the concept, definition, domain, advantages, and position of "Quranic Sciences", as a prerequisite of the interpretation of the Quran. The outcome of the research is as follows: "Quranic Sciences" applies to two different meanings: a narrow one and a wide one. In its wide sense, it covers all sciences relevant whatsoever with the Quran. However, in its narrow sense, it only applies to the sciences or various types of knowledge derived from the Quran. In its technical sense, "Quranic Sciences" is a particular discipline the subject of which is the holy Quran and whatever concerns this divine book.

Since new questions may arise as time passes by, it is not possible to determine a fixed domain for the subjects discussed in "Quranic Sciences". Zarkashi and Suyuti have confined the issues of "Quranic Sciences" to a limited number. However, some issues raised in the books "Al-Burhan" and "Al-Itiqan" can not be rightly included in Quranic Sciences in its conventional sense.

On the other hand, failure to mention some issues in certain comprehensives works on Quranic Sciences or mentioning them under different headings does not imply that they are


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out of the domain of Quranic Sciences. Rather, whatever seen as one of the intrinsic accidents of the Quran may be included in the domain of Quranic Sciences.

"Quranic Sciences" deals with such foundations of interpretation of the Quran as its divine origin and authenticity of its present text. Furthermore, knowing certain issues of this discipline is instrumental for the commentator in revealing the intents of Almighty God although it may be considered as the key to interpretation; there is a link between Quranic Sciences and certain disciplines as jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, and theology. This link may on some occasions be manifested in other disciplines benefiting from the outcome of researches in this discipline, on others in the latter benefiting from the former, and still on some others, there would be mutual benefits.

Keywords: definition of Quranic Sciences, domain of Quranic Sciences, advantages of Quranic Sciences, necessity of Quranic Sciences, Position of Quranic Sciences, and interpretation

The Divine Origin of the Quranic Text from the Perspective of Allama Tabatabai and its Role in Al-Mizan Commentary

Amīr Rezā Ashrafī*

The Present article Surveys and analyzes Allama Tabatabai's view on the creator of the words and phrases of the Quran presenting the proofs and arguments in this regard. According to Allama Tabatabai, the words and phrases of the Quran have been revealed verbatim by Al-mighty God. Thus, approaches which attach the meanings or intents of the Quran to God attributing Quranic words and their word order to the angel of revelation or the holy prophet are considered wrong and improper.

Allama Tabatabai holds that the following classes of verses indicate that the words and phrases of the Quran have been revealed verbatim by Almighty God: The verses calling their addressees to challenge and produce something like the Quran. Those suggesting the holy Prophet's absolute obedience to the divine revelation. Those suggesting the revelation of the Quran in Arabic Language. Those classifying the verses into firm (Muhkam) and ambiguous (Mutashābih) ones and some other ones.

According to Allama, the divine origin of the words and phrases of the Quran has caused the Quranic text to be far from any kind of tolerance toward polytheism, difference and contradiction, and wrong thoughts and ideas, hence conveying divine intents and messages thoroughly. Taking due account into this principle, Allama has sought to reveal as far as possible the role of these delicate and fine qualities of the words and phrases of the Quran in communicating divine intents in Al-Mizan, the commentary written by him.

Keywords: The text of the Quran, principles of interpretation, Allama Tabatabai, divine origin, words and phrases of the Quran.

The Comprehensiveness of the Holy Quran as Expressed in al-Mizan Commentary

Hamid Aryan**

The comprehensiveness of the Quran is one of the fundamental principles of interpreting this book. The perspective of Allama Tabatabai, the contemporary influential commentator is of


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high significance in this regard. It can be a key to solve certain theoretical problems in the field of religious thought, model, and practice. The present article reveals different aspects of Allama's view on the comprehensiveness of the Quran as stated in al-Mizan commentary. By the comprehensiveness of the Quran, Allama means its being perfect. Allama refers to three aspects of this perfection as follows:

1. Its being comprehensive as compared to earlier revealed books. 2. Comprehensiveness as to thorough and all-embracing presentation of ideas or issues. 3. Comprehensive as to the wide domain of issues covered in the Quran. Allama expresses this point in two ways: a) All-embracing comprehensiveness. b) Comprehensiveness as far as guidance and the needs relevant to the happiness of human being are concerned.

Allama proves the comprehensiveness of the Quran and explains its quality in different ways. He establishes a link between the comprehensiveness of the Quran and the perfection of religion or of the Quran. He also refers to a direct link between the quality of the final religion-as responsive to the needs of man whatsoever-and the quality of the Quran as the clarifier of everything. Further he holds that two qualities of the Quran, i.e. clarifying everything and distinguishing everything, indicate its being comprehensive. The Quran as the clarifier of everything (Tibyān) is supposed to show clearly whatever man requires in treading the path of happiness. Furthermore, according to Allama, the universality of the Quranic challenge requires that this book have materials and messages in every controversial field of knowledge, materials which are inimitable. Therefore, the universal challenge implies the comprehensiveness of this book in every aspect. Enumerating various types of issues raised in the Quran.

Allama elaborates on the wide domain of Quranic themes in more detail.

Keywords: comprehensiveness of the Quran, thematic domain of the Quran, al-Mizan commentary, Allama Tabatabai, various aspects of the comprehensiveness of the Quran, proofs of the comprehensiveness of the Quran

The Hierarchy of Kinship in the Holy Quran

Muhammad Naqībzādeh*

Explaining the special word order and word selection in the Quranic verses dealing with one’s relatives, the present article surveys differences in expressions and reasons why the name of one relation follows or precedes another in a certain verse.

Drawing on traditions (Riwāyāt) and commentators’ ideas, it refers to some of the secrets behind mentioning certain Quranic words before or after others when dealing with the way and order of mentioning relations. Thus it naturally clarifies the delicate and fine Quranic Points concerning the usage and word order of the abovementioned names in the holy Quran. A deep study of the verses concerning family in the holy Quran indicates significant differences in the special order of mentioning relations in Quranic verses dealing with different aspects of family members and relations.

As to their position and reverence, father and mother usually precede other relations. As to their emotions and affection toward other relatives, children have the first place. Then spouses, parents, and finally brothers and sisters are mentioned. As far as legal matters are concerned, the order of mentioning relations is children, parents, spouses, and finally brothers and sisters.

Concerning the order of mentioning the names of close relatives with whom marriage is forbidden, there is a difference between men's relations and women's relations. Mentioning


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the close women relations of a man, the Quran begins with blood relations, then foster ones, and finally in-laws. However, as far as the close men relations of a woman are concerned, masculine in-laws precede blood relations in the holy Quran. As far as sensual and carnal desires are concerned, women are mentioned first (sexual desire), and sons hold the second place (boasting about them).

Keywords: the word order in Quranic vocabulary, Kinship, order of mentioning relations, family.

The Comprehensiveness of the Holy Quran as Expressed in al-Mizan Commentary

Hamid Aryan*

The comprehensiveness of the Quran is one of the important principles of interpreting this book. The perspective of Allama Tabatabai, the contemporary influential commentator is of high significance in this regard. It can be a key to solve certain theoretical problems in the field of religious thought, model, and practice. The comprehensiveness of the Quran, according to Allama Tabatabai stays as to refer a perfect text. Allama refers to three aspects of this perfection as follows:

1.Being comprehensive as to refer to a divine text which provides full and multidimensional explanation about all human problems.2. Being comprehensive as to refer to a divine text which encompasses all subjects and all problems.3. Being comprehensive as to refer to both above mentioned aspects. It is worthy of mentioning that these three aspects of comprehensiveness might be viewed independently or as compared to previous divine scriptures. Independent comprehensiveness of the only quran could refer to two different meanings: Comprehensiveness in all aspects. Comprehensiveness in one particular aspect such as what deals with human needs for guidance. This categorization could be divided into nine forms.

References and proofs are found in al-myzan which explains seven forms of there nine kinds. Yet the majority of his explanations stay for the sixth kind which explains the quran comprehensiveness in terms of inclusion of various problems which are explained independently and only in the quran and as to deal with a particular field such as guiding needs.

Allamah Tabatabai believes that the comprehensiveness of the quran in its all divisions depends on both appearances(ع) Inner depth of the quran. Aspects such as ethics and morality in its detail are discussed in apparent side of the quran but only a general definition of teachings (maarif), rulings, and decrees(ع) Principles are mentioned in apparent side of the quran therefore explanation and details of there issues of reflected in narrations of could be found somewhere else.

Key words: Comprehensiveness of the quran, al-mizan Commentary, Allamah Tabatabai, Forms of quran comprehensiveness, Proofs for quran comprehensiveness, Comprehensiveness of the apparent side of the quran (exoteric comprehensiveness of the quran), Quran explanation generally in detail, Thematic domain of the quran.


* By Dr. Mahmūd Karīmī Assistant Professor, Imām Sādegh University

** A great Scholar of theological Seminary in Qum and a Commentator of the holy Quran.

*** Ph.D student of Quranic Sciences and Interpretation.

* Faculty member, Department of Quranic Sciences and Interpretation, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute ,Qum.

** Faculty member, Department of Quranic Sciences and Interpretation, Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute ,Qum..

* Faculty member, Department of Quranic Sciences and interpretation, Imam Khomeini Education and research institute, Qum.

** Faculty member, Department of Quranic Sciences and Interpretation, , Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute, Qum.

* Ph.D student of Quranic Sciences and Interpretation.

* Faculty member, Department of Quranic Sciences and interpretation, Imam Khomeini Education and research institute, Qum.