Abstracts

قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 
1500تومان

Investigating the Power of Artificial Intelligence for Competing with the Human Mind from the Perspective of the Qur'an

 

Abouzar Tashakkori Saleh / PhD. Student of the Quranic Interpretation and Science, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research                                                                                                                                       s.fajr@yahoo.com

Mahmoud Rajabi / Professor in IKI

Received: 2018/05/30 - Acceopted: 2018/10/16

 

Abstract

For many years, the ability of artificial intelligence to compete with the human mind has been a fascinating subject in philosophy of mind. By examining the verses and deducing the anthropological principles of the Qur'an, one can determine the extent of the conformity of the theory of artificial intelligence with the general view of the school of Islam about man. The purpose of this paper is to compare the anthropological principles of the Qur'an with the general principles of the theory of artificial intelligence. Based on this comparison, it is made clear that there is a serious mismatch between the perspective of the Qur'an about the dimensions of human existence, his talents, capabilities, human- specific knowledge and the strong version of the theory of artificial intelligence. The Qur'an calls man the “vicegerent of Allah”, whose soul receives divine revelations and has the ability to reach the station of Divine Nearness, while the theory of artificial intelligence considers human and his mind entirely material and, based on all mental activities in the brain, regards the imitation of all the brain activities by a machine as quite possible.

Key words: mind, artificial intelligence, soul, human talents, human knowledge.


The Qur'an and the Doctrine of the Supremacy of Prophets, Methods, Contexts, and Nature

 

Ali Rad / Associate Professor, Department of the Quran and Hadith Sciences, University of Tehran, Pardis Farabi ali.rad@ut.ac.ir

Received: 2018/07/07 - Acceopted: 2018/11/16

 

Abstract

Explaining the approach of the Qur'an to the supremacy of prophets, with emphasis on the typology of the expression method of the Qur’anic verses, studying the reason for the supremacy and superiority of the prophets in the Qur'an, studying the approach of the commentators in dealing with this issue, and determining the example of the supreme prophet from the Qur'an's perspective are the central issues of the present study that criticizes the rival theory and scrutinizing .the core issues. The results of the study showed that the doctrine of the supremacy of prophets is expressed in various Quranic verses in two explicit and implicit methods and the forms of references, providing evidences and argumentation. The development and process of this doctrine has been non-detailed in Mecca and detailed in Medina. There are three ethical, propagational and epistemological grounds for answering the question of the Qur'an’s dealing with this doctrine. The two approaches of "silence" and "explanation" are common in the analysis of the nature of the supremacy of prophets. Against the explanatory approach, t three hypotheses are probable: prophets’ supremacy is historical, is granted and is granted-exigent. The author has accepted the third hypothesis for its advantages as a criterion viewpoint. Although the Qur'an stipulates the existence of a kind of superiority among some of the prophets, there is no clear indication of the supremacy and prominence of a particular prophet compared to other prophets; however, in Islamic narrations, Prophet Mohammad's supremacy is emphasized over the previous prophets, and theologians and traditionalists have claimed consensus in this regard. Also, some of the interpretive theories have accepted that the verse "«وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجات» " implies the supremacy of Prophet Muhammad.

Key words: supremacy, virtues, prophets, Prophet Muhammad.


Strategies and Methods for Institutionalizing the Culture of the Qur'an Based on the Innate Tendency of Man to Perfection and Beauty

Ali Rezazadeh Juibari / PhD Student of Quran and Hadith Sciences                      namebar110@gmail.com

Fathallah Najarzadegan / Professor of Pardis Farabi, Tehran University

Received: 2018/08/21 - Acceopted: 2019/01/15

 

Abstract

In order to institutionalize the Qur'anic culture, teachers and culture makers have to pay special attention to the natural tendencies of human beings in the process of propagation and education, because the Qur'an is a word of God, the Creator of innate nature, and the language of the Quran is in harmony with the innate nature of human beings. This paper seeks to formulate educational strategies derived from human’s innate tendency to beauty and perfection. Through discovering the appropriate methods for implementing these strategies, it also seeks to institutionalize the Qur'anic worldviews, beliefs and values in the Qur'an's audience. In this research, Frankena’s logical model is used to derive the strategies and their related methods, and provide Qur'anic and narrative proofs for the discussed principles and methods. In this regard, based on "love for absolute perfection", the strategies of "explaining the perfection-creating culture of the Quran", "introducing the perfections of the Qur'an and the culture of the Quran" and "strengthening and enhancing the sense of perfection-seeking" and based on "the tendency toward beauty," the strategies of "observance of beauty and adornment in institutionalization "," highlighting the beauties of the Qur'an "and" enhancement of the Aesthetic tastes "have been extracted, and a total of 24 methods have been presented to implement these strategies.

Keywords: the Qur'an, the Qur'anic culture, innate tendency, perfection, beauty, institutionalization, institutionalization methods.


The Terminology of "Vojuh and Naza’er " in the Quranic Sciences

 

Ali Osat Bagheri / Assistant Professor in IKI                                                                   bagheri@qabas.net

Received: 2018/05/18 - Acceopted: 2018/10/05

 

Abstract

Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper studies the use of the terms "Vojuh" and "Naza’er" in the books on Vojuh (different meanings of a word) and Naza’er (similar words with different meanings). It investigates the words of Zarkashi in defining the terms "Vojuh" and "Naza’er” and his critique of the definition offered by Ibn Jozi, and approves the definition given by Ibn Jozi. Moreover, the misconception of some scholars about Zarkashi's words on defining Nazae'r has been made clear, and the types that Ayatollah Ma'refat had mentioned for Vojuh and Naza’er have been studied.

According to the definition given by Ibn Jozi, "Naza'er" are terms which are used in the Qur'an for a variety of meanings; and “Vojuh” refer to their meanings. Zarkeshi mistakenly regards both Vojuh and Naza’er as description of terms. Due to an incorrect interpretation of the words of Zarkeshi, Ayatollah Ma’refat and some others have defined Naza’er as synonymous words.

"Vojuh and Naza’er "and "Mohkam and Motashabeh” (the Clear and Unclear verses) are two independent topics in the Quranic sciences, and their confusion is a mistake and characterized as vague. In Vojuh and Naza’er, different uses of a word in the Qur'an are considered, but “Motashabeh” refers to the possible meanings of a verse. Of the four kinds mentioned by Ayatollah Ma’refat for Vojuh and Naza’er, three kinds have nothing to do with Vojuh and Naza’er, and some of the examples mentioned for the other kind are related to Mohkam and Motashabeh.

Key words: Vojuh and Naza’er, Mohkam and Motashabeh, Ayatollah Ma'refat, Alborhan Fi Olum al-Qur'an, Ibn Jozi, Zarkeshi, synonyms, common words.


The Study of the Verses Surmising the Commitment of Sin or Abandoning the Better Action by Prophet Moses in the Murder of a Coptic Man

Ali Faqih / PhD in the Qur'anic Sciences and Teachings    alifaghih30@yahoo.com
Ismail Soltani Beyrami / Assistant Professor in IKI
Received: 2018/09/20 - Acceopted: 2019/02/13

Abstract
In the fighting between a Pharaonic and an Israelite, Prophet Moses helped the Israelite, and his pushing away the Pharaonic (Coptic) led to his death. The question that arises in this regard is whether the statements quoted from prophet Moses after killing the Coptic be reconciled with his infallibility? The verses that raise the doubt of sin or abandoning the better action.
 are: «هذا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطانِ»؛ «قالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسي‏ فَاغْفِرْلي»؛ «قالَ فَعَلْتُها إِذاً وَأَنَا مِنَ الضَّالِّينَ»
Studies show that all Shiite commentators have regarded this murder as Tark-e- ula (abandoning the better action), and all Sunni commentators (except Fakhr Razi) have considered it a sin. Using the descriptive - analytical method, this paper has dealt with this doubt and concluded that the murder of Coptic by the Prophet was neither a sin; nor abandoning the better action. The pronoun "Hadha" in the first verse refers to the fight between Sebti and Coptic. The word "oppression" and "forgiveness" in the second verse are also used in the literal meaning; therefore, it means: By entering this city, I placed myself where I should not be; then cover me from enemies. Moreover, the sentence «فَعَلْتُها إِذاً وَأَنَا مِنَ الضَّالِّينَ» is used for dissimulation.
Keywords: Prophet Moses, Moses’s infallibility, murder of a Coptic man, sin, abandoning the better action.


Examining the Disregard for the Semantic Relationship of the Terms "Asatir al-Awwalin " and "Ommi" in the Persian Translations of the Holy Qur'an

 

 Ali Sayadani / Assistant Professor of  Arabic Language and  Literature, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
    a.sayadani@azaruniv.ac.ir
Jila Husseinzadeh Khanmiri / MA Student of  the Qur'an and Hadith Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.

Received: 2018/07/09 - Acceopted: 2018/12/17

 

Abstract

Paying attention to the semantic relationship of vocabularies with each other has a great influence on the accuracy of the translation, but most of the translations have given incorrect equivalents for Asatir al-Awwalin and Ommi due to ignoring this point. Asatir al-Awwalin, i.e. reciting the divine word by pagans, has been condemned in nine verses of the holy Qur'an. On the other hand, the illiteracy of the prophet of Islam as the source of Divine Word is also targeted by orientalists. Despite many studies that have been carried out on these two terms independently, from the viewpoint of the experts in this field, the semantic and purposeful relation of these words with each other are disregarded. The simultaneous examination of these two words is necessary because it is precisely in response to the doubt about the Qur'an's adoption from the Testaments. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper firstly investigated the different meanings of each of these two words from the viewpoint of lexicographers, translators and commentators; then, while criticizing the wrong views, the correct meaning of the word was analyzed, and their semantic relation was studied in the Quran. Finally, some of the Persian translations of the holy Qur'an were evaluated in terms of accuracy in the way in which semantic equivalents were selected, as well as the level of reflection of the semantic relation between the two terms mentioned in the translation. During the study, it became clear that most of the translations did not succeed much neither in finding exact equivalences nor in reflecting the semantic relationship between two words.

Keywords: Asatir al-Awwalin, ommi, ommani, book, Persian translations of the Qur'an.